domingo, 1 de noviembre de 2009

My Day..!!! Ignacio Pereira

Hi. I´m Ignacio Pereira. I´m student. My day always start early. I usually get up at 5:30am. Then i take a shower and get dressed. Then i go to LUZ University at 12:50pm. Then i go to URBE University at 5:10pm. I usually go home at 6:00pm. Then i do my homework and then i go to my friends house at 11:00pm. Finally i go to bed at 12:00pm until the other day

His Favorite Day..!!! Third Person

Hi.! He´s Ignacio Pereira. Every sundays He´s gets up late, at 12:00pm, When he gets up he goes to the bathroom and he wash his teeth and his face. Afther that he goes downstair to the kitchen and have lunch with his family. Then he leave the kitchen and he goes to his room and wach his favorite tv series, movies and games of soccer. he rests until the 4:30pm then he goes to play soccer with his friends until the 7:00pm. Soon he goes to his house and he puts to the bath and takes a shower. Then he goes to the room of the house to spend time with his family while they have dinner. When finishing he goes to his room and he lies down to sleep until the other day.

My Favorite Day..!!! First Person Ignacio Pereira

Every sundays i get up late, at 12:00pm, When i get up i go to the bathroom and i wash mi teeth and my face. Afther that i go downstair to the kitchen and have lunch with my family. Then i leave the kitchen and i go to my room and wach my favorite tv series, movies and games of soccer. I rest until the 4:30pm then i go to play soccer with my friends until the 7:00pm. Soon i go to my house and i put to the bath and take a shower. Then i go to the room of the house to spend time with my family while we had dinner. When finishing i go to my room and i lie down to sleep until the other day.

My House, Is Nice

I live an apartment, in amparo. In my apartment there are ten rooms: -One living room, -a dining room, -Three Bed rooms, -a Kitchen, -a Laundry room, Three Bad rooms

sábado, 31 de octubre de 2009

Halloween Holiday

Halloween (also written Hallowe'en, literally "holy evening"), also known as All Hallows' Eve or All Saints' Eve, is an annual holiday celebrated on October 31. It has roots in the Celtic festival of Samhain and gets its name from being the evening (e'en) before the Western Christian holy day of All Saints (the Eastern Orthodox celebrate All Saints' Day in June). It is largely a secular celebration but some have expressed strong feelings about perceived religious overtones.

The colours black and orange have become associated with the celebrations, perhaps because of the darkness of night and the colour of fire or of pumpkins, and maybe because of the vivid contrast this presents for merchandising. Another association is with the jack-o'-lantern. Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, wearing costumes and attending costume parties, ghost tours, bonfires, visiting haunted attractions, pranks, telling scary stories, and watching horror films.

Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, [it is] more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain or Samuin (pronounced sow-an or sow-in)". The name is derived from Old Irish and means roughly "summer's end".[4] A similar festival was held by the ancient Britons and is known as Calan Gaeaf (pronounced kalan-geyf).

Snap-Apple Night by Daniel Maclise showing a Halloween party in Blarney, Ireland, in 1832. The young children on the right bob for apples. A couple in the center play a variant, which involves retrieving an apple hanging from a string. The couples at left play divination games.The festival of Samhain celebrates the end of the "lighter half" of the year and beginning of the "darker half", and is sometimes regarded as the "Celtic New Year".

The celebration has some elements of a festival of the dead. The ancient Celts believed that the border between this world and the Otherworld became thin on Samhain, allowing spirits (both harmless and harmful) to pass through. The family's ancestors were honoured and invited home whilst harmful spirits were warded off. It is believed that the need to ward off harmful spirits led to the wearing of costumes and masks. Their purpose was to disguise oneself as a harmful spirit and thus avoid harm. In Scotland the spirits were impersonated by young men dressed in white with masked, veiled or blackened faces. Samhain was also a time to take stock of food supplies and slaughter livestock for winter stores. Bonfires played a large part in the festivities. All other fires were doused and each home lit their hearth from the bonfire. The bones of slaughtered livestock were cast into its flames. Sometimes two bonfires would be built side-by-side, and people and their livestock would walk between them as a cleansing ritual.

Another common practise was divination, which often involved the use of food and drink.

The name 'Halloween' and many of its present-day traditions derive from the Old English era.

Origin of name
The term Halloween (also spelled Hallowe'en) is shortened from All Hallows' Even – e'en is a shortening of even, which is the origin of the words "evening" and "eve". This is ultimately derived from the Old English Eallra Hālgena ǣfen. It is now known as "Eve of" All Saints' Day,[citation needed] which is November 1st.

In the 800s, the Church measured the day as starting at sunset, in accordance with the Florentine calendar. Although All Saints' Day is now considered to occur one day after Halloween, the two holidays were once celebrated on the same day.


A traditional Irish halloween Jack-o'-lantern from the early 20th century on display in the Museum of Country Life, Ireland.Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time encompassing customs of medieval holy days as well as contemporary cultures. The souling practice of commemorating the souls in purgatory with candle lanterns carved from turnips, became adapted into the making of jack-o'-lanterns.[16] In traditional Celtic Halloween festivals, large turnips were hollowed out, carved with faces and placed in windows to ward off evil spirits. The carving of pumpkins is associated with Halloween in North America where pumpkins are both readily available and much larger – making them easier to carve than turnips. Many families that celebrate Halloween carve a pumpkin into a frightening or comical face and place it on their doorstep after dark. The American tradition of carving pumpkins preceded the Great Famine period of Irish immigration[18] and was originally associated with harvest time in general, not becoming specifically associated with Halloween until the mid-to-late 1800s.

Halloween spiders at a row house in Washington DCThe imagery surrounding Halloween is largely a mix of the Halloween season itself, works of Gothic and horror literature, in particular the novels Frankenstein and Dracula, and nearly a century of work from American filmmakers and graphic artists, and British Hammer Horror productions, also a rather commercialized take on the dark and mysterious. Halloween imagery tends to involve death, evil, the occult, magic, or mythical monsters. Traditional characters include the Devil, the Grim Reaper, ghosts, ghouls, demons, witches, goblins, vampires, werewolves, zombies, skeletons, black cats, spiders, bats, and crows.

Particularly in America, symbolism is inspired by classic horror films (which contain fictional figures like Frankenstein's monster and The Mummy). Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins, corn husks, and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween.

The two main colors associated with Halloween are orange and black.

Trick-or-treating and guising
Main article: Trick-or-treating

Typical Halloween scene in Dublin, Ireland.Trick-or-treating is a customary celebration for children on Halloween. Children go in costume from house to house, asking for treats such as candy or sometimes money, with the question, "Trick or treat?" The word "trick" refers to a (mostly idle) threat to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no treat is given. In some parts of Ireland and Scotland children still go guising. In this custom the child performs some sort of show, i.e. sings a song or tells a ghost story, in order to earn their treats.

Main article: Halloween costume
Halloween costumes are traditionally those of monsters such as ghosts, skeletons, witches, and devils. They are said to be used to scare off demons. Costumes are also based on themes other than traditional horror, such as those of characters from television shows, movies, and other pop culture icons.

Costume sales
BIGresearch conducted a survey for the National Retail Federation in the United States and found that 53.3% of consumers planned to buy a costume for Halloween 2005, spending $38.11 on average (up $10 from the year before). They were also expected to spend $4.96 billion in 2006, up significantly from just $3.3 billion the previous year.

Main article: Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF
"Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" has become a common sight during Halloween in North America. Started as a local event in a Philadelphia suburb in 1950 and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools (or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark, at their licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small-change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $118 million (US) for UNICEF since its inception. In Canada, in 2006, UNICEF decided to discontinue their Halloween collection boxes, citing safety and administrative concerns; after consultation with schools, they instead redesigned the program.

Haunted attractions
Main article: Haunted attraction

In front of haunted house during Halloween season, Northern California.Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and scare patrons; most are seasonal Halloween businesses. Origins of these paid scare venues are difficult to pinpoint, but it is generally accepted that they were first commonly used by the Junior Chamber International (Jaycees) for fundraising.[31] They include haunted houses, corn mazes, and hayrides, and the level of sophistication of the effects has risen as the industry has grown. Haunted attractions in the United States bring in an estimate $300–500 million each year, and draw some 400,000 customers, although trends suggest a peak in 2005. This increase in interest has led to more highly technical special effects and costuming that is comparable with that in Hollywood films.


Candy appleBecause the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest, candy apples (known as toffee apples outside North America), caramel or taffy apples are a common Halloween treat made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, sometimes followed by rolling them in nuts.

At one time, candy apples were commonly given to children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples. While there is evidence of such incidents, they are quite rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant. At the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free x-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy, and there have been occasional reports of children putting needles in their own (and other children's) candy in need of a bit of attention.[citation needed]

One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays, the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac), which is a light fruitcake, into which a plain ring, a coin and other charms are placed before baking. It is said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year. This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany.

List of foods associated with the holiday:

Barmbrack (Ireland)
Bonfire toffee (Britain)
Candy apples
Candy corn (North America)
Caramel apples
Caramel corn
Colcannon (Ireland)
Pumpkin, pumpkin pie, pumpkin bread
Roasted pumpkin seeds
Roasted sweet corn
Soul cakes
Novelty candy shaped like skulls, pumpkins, bats, worms, etc.
Around the world
Main article: Halloween around the world
Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world, and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significantly. Celebration in the United States has had a significant impact on how the holiday is observed in other nations. This larger American influence, particularly in iconic and commercial elements, has extended to places such as South America, Europe, to Japan under the auspices of the Japanese Biscuit Association, and the Far East.

Religious perspectives
See also: All Saints and Samhain

A natural Halloween decoration in Muir Woods National MonumentIn North America, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are quite diverse. In the Anglican Church, some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions of All Saints’ Day, while some other Protestants celebrate the holiday as Reformation Day, a day to remember the Protestant Reformation.

Many Christians ascribe no negative significance to Halloween, treating it as a purely secular holiday devoted to celebrating "imaginary spooks" and handing out candy. Halloween celebrations are common among Roman Catholic parochial schools throughout North America and in Ireland. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church sees Halloween as having a Christian connection. Father Gabriele Amorth, a Vatican-appointed exorcist in Rome, has said, "If English and American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no harm in that."

Most Christians hold the view that the tradition is far from being satanic in origin or practice and that it holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage. Other Christians feel concerned about Halloween, and reject the holiday because they believe it trivializes (and celebrates) "the occult" and what they perceive as evil. A response among some fundamentalists in recent years has been the use of 'Hell houses' or themed pamphlets (such as those of Jack T. Chick) which attempt to make use of Halloween as an opportunity for evangelism.

Some consider Halloween to be completely incompatible with the Christian faith because of its origin as a pagan "Festival of the Dead." In more recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "Saint Fest" on the holiday. Many contemporary Protestant churches view Halloween as a fun event for children, holding events in their churches where children and their parents can dress up, play games, and get candy. Jehovah's Witnesses do not celebrate Halloween because they believe anything that originated from a pagan holiday should not be celebrated by true Christians.

Religions other than Christianity also have varied views on Halloween. Celtic Pagans consider the season a holy time of year. Celtic Reconstructionists, and others who maintain ancestral customs, make offerings to the Gods and the ancestors.

Some Wiccans feel that the tradition is offensive to "real witches" for promoting stereotypical caricatures of "wicked witches".

martes, 27 de octubre de 2009

Gloabal Warming

The science

Global warming refers to an increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s atmosphere and oceans over time. This temperature rise is the result of an increase in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, including methane, nitrous oxide and aerosols, in our atmosphere.

When sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface, some of it is reflected back towards space as infrared radiation or heat. Greenhouse gases absorb this infrared radiation and trap the heat in the atmosphere. Normal amounts of gases are what keep the Earth warm and habitable. However, the build up of gasses beyond the normal levels and at a rate that the environment cannot alleviate, is what causes global warming. Surface air temperatures and sub-surface ocean temperatures are rising and are expected to continue to rise.

The effect

An increased global temperature will shift ecosystems. Glaciers will retreat, altering water supply for habitats and millions of people. Plant productivity and vitality will change, destroying fragile ecosystems. Overall, the effects are widespread and largely irreparable.

The record highs of atmospheric gases are the result of burning fossil fuels, clearing of land and agriculture activity. According to most experts, the sharp increase of dramatic warming in the past 50 years is attributable to human activity. In the United States, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, resulting from petroleum and natural gas, represents 82 percent of our total human-made greenhouse gas emissions.

Global warming is more than just glaciers and polar bears. The Great Lakes is the largest freshwater body of water on the planet, the single largest source of surface fresh water in the world. Scientists estimate that the lakes are warmer and water levels are declining, with no end in sight.

The problem

The Midwest is at the center of our global warming problems and can be at the center of our solutions.

Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin account for 20% of the carbon pollution in the United States with only 5% of the world’s total pollution. The Midwest alone is responsible for more global warming pollution than most countries across the globe except for China, India, Russia and Japan. There are several factors that make the Midwest critical to global warming solutions:

The Midwest has the largest concentration of old, dirty coal plants that produce large amounts of carbon dioxide which cause global warming.
As the hub on the United States transportation industry, the crossroads of America has developed a heavy carbon burden.

The solutions

Clean technologies mean a cleaner world for all. Not only do modern technologies reduce carbon pollution, they reduce other harmful pollutants that poison our lakes, make our land infertile, and harm human health. By reducing global warming pollution, we help to make our energy and transportation systems more efficient, protect our forest ecosystems, wildlife and biodiversity, and improve our air quality and protect peoples’ health.

We need the political and economic capital to make clean energy decisions happen today. For example, renewable energy, such as wind and others, currently supplies about 2% of the region’s electricity supply. We have the technology to meet 20% of our energy supply needs through clean, renewable energy. The result – a 51% reduction in carbon dioxide – is a larger reduction than proposed by the Kyoto Treaty.

Clean car technology can produce more efficient, less polluting cars that get better mileage and create needed manufacturing jobs. We have the technology to clean up dirty diesel trucks and use cleaner fuels – but we can only achieve success by avoiding roadblocks and creating policies that reduce pollution.

It is our moral imperative to address our carbon consumption for today’s world and generations to come. With current technologies, policies and personal actions we can take a huge take step forward in securing our energy future with homegrown business and innovation while protecting our natural resources.

Federal legislation

In June of 2009 the House of Representatives successfully passed the American Clean Energy and Security Act, a comprehensive plan to transition America to a clean energy economy and reduce carbon pollution. Now it is time for the U.S. Senate to draft their version of national energy and climate legislation. Please urge your Senators to write legislation that expands and improves the House version of the bill. Read a summary of the American Clean Energy and Security Act here.

miércoles, 14 de octubre de 2009